Fabric Laying is the process of unwinding large rolls of fabric onto long, wide tables in preparation for cutting each piece of a garment. The number of layers of fabric is dictated by the number of garments desired and the fabric thickness. Spreading can be done by hand or machine. Depending upon the fabric and cutting technology, up to 200 layers of fabric may be cut at one time. Fabrics that are more difficult to handle are generally cut in thinner stacks.
The first stage in the manufacturing of garments is the cutting and for that pattern making is the base. Cutting is separating of the garment in to its components and in a general form it is the production process of separating (sectioning, curving, severing) a spread into garment parts that are the precise size and shape of the pattern pieces on a marker. The cutting process may also involve transferring marks and notches from the garment parts to assist operators in sewing, chopping or sectioning a spread in to blocks of pieces goodsmany precede precision cutting of individual patter shapes. This is done to allow for accurate matching of fabric design or easier manufacturing of acutting knife.
Garments are sewn in an assembly line, with the garment becoming more complete as it progresses down the sewing line. Sewing machine operators receive a bundle of cut fabric and repeatedly sew the same portion of the garment, passing that completed portion to the next operator. For example, the first operator may sew the collar to the body of the garment and the next operator may sew a sleeve to the body. Quality assurance is performed at the end of the sewing line to ensure that the garment has been properly assembled and that no manufacturing defects exist. When needed, the garment will be reworked or mended at designated sewing stations. This labor-intensive process progressively transforms pieces of fabric into designer garments.
In addition to identifying manufacturing defects, employees tasked with performing quality assurance are also looking for cosmetic flaws, stains, or other spots on the garment that may have occurred during the cutting and sewing processes. Spots are often marked with a sticker and taken to a spot-cleaning area where the garment is cleaned using steam, hot water, or chemical stain removers.
After a garment is fully sewn and assembled, it is transferred to the ironing section of the facility for final pressing. Each ironing station consists of an iron and an ironing platform. The irons are similar looking to residential models, but have steam supplied by an on-site boiler. Workers control the steam with foot pedals and the steam is delivered via overhead hoses directly to the iron. In most facilities, the ironing platforms are equipped with a ventilation system that draws steam through the ironing table and exhausts it outside the factory.
In the last steps of making a product retail-ready, garments are folded, tagged, sized, and packaged according to customer specifications. Also, garments may be placed in protective plastic bags, either manually or using an automated system, to ensure that the material stays clean and pressed during shipping. Lastly, garments are placed in cardboard boxes and shipped to client distribution centers to eventually be sold in retail stores.
Embroidery is performed using automated equipment, often with many machines concurrently embroidering the same pattern on multiple garments. Each production line may include between 10 and 20 embroidery stations. Customers may request embroidery to put logos or other embellishments on garments.
Quilting is the art of covering the fabrics for frontal and back, both the sides. The fabrics composed by the sides are generally said to be the quilting fabric. Quilted fabrics are generally made for products like bags, clothing and mattresses. Quilted fabrics can blend any of the material like cotton, polyesters, silk and many more including the wool. Quilted fabrics have been in the daily uses since ages. With the time, quilted fabric has been innovated and modernized in its composition and designs as well. Quilted fabric is also available in countless colors and shapes. Especially, the variety in the quilted fabric can be witnessed in the jackets and mattresses.
Laser etching is the practice of using lasers to engrave an object. Laser etching on the other hand just discolors the surface, without cutting into the surface. The technique does not involve the use of inks, nor does it involve tool bits which contact the etching surface and wear out.
Printing is the process of applying paint-based graphics to fabric using presses and textile dryers. Specifically, screen printing involves sweeping a rubber blade across a porous screen, transferring ink through a stencil and onto the fabric. The screen printed pieces of fabric are then dried to set the ink. This process may have varying levels of automation or may largely be completed at manually operated stations. Like embroidery, screen printing is wholly determined by the customer and may be requested to put logos or other graphics on garments or to print brand and size information in place of affixing tags.
Some customers request that a garment be fully laundered after it is sewn and assembled; therefore, garment factories often have an on-site laundry or have subcontract agreements with off-site laundry operations. Commercial laundry facilities are equipped with at least three types of machines: washers, spinners, and dryers. Some facilities also have the capability to perform special treatments, such as stone or acid-washing.